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INFLUENCE OF VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS MONARDA DIDYMA ON ESSENTIAL NATURAL OILS FROM RAW MATERIALS GROWN IN CONDITIONS OF SOUTHERN STEPPE OF UKRAINE

Author(s) Yanchenko I. A. , , , Mykolayiv National Agrarian University
Category Crop production
year 2016 issue №1, 2016
pages 54-59 index UDK УДК 631.526.3:633.8(477.7)
DOI
Abstract Despite the significant advances in the development of various synthetic drugs in the new generation, the last decade has seen a growing interest in natural compounds of plant origin. Vegetable raw materials with a high content of secondary origin compounds are widely used in medicine, perfume, the cosmetic industry and in the food and confectionery industry. The use of aromatic extracts and medicinal plants ensures the high efficiency in a number of branches at the reduction of valuable raw material losses, as well as through the issuance of new types of products. In this article the impact of the varietal characteristics of Monarda didyma on essential oil yield, under the cultivation in conditions of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine, was investigated. We researched the indicators of crop production. Particular attention was concentrated on the analysis of the plant varieties of Monarda raw materials structure, because the ethereal oil content greatly depends on the concentration of oil in particular organs; also the leaves and inflorescences in the ratio of above-ground mass are the most valuable part of the general crop. The greatest number of Monarda didyma essential oils were stored in above-ground mass during the generative phase of development. This phase begins in the second year of the culture’s growth. General productivity of researched varieties was determined in the third week of June at the same time with the phase of mass flowering. In this phase of development of the plants, the mass of stems exceeded the weight of the leaves by 2.0-2.9 times. This significantly affects the essential oil yield, as every organ (stem, leaf, inflorescence) accumulate different amounts of oil. The essential oil concentration was determined in Monarda didyma aerial shoots of the samples in the second year of vegetation. According to received results, the highest amount of essential oil was accumulated in inflorescences, and the smallest in the stems. The concentration of the essential oil in vegetable raw materials were: the Slava sort – 1.2% , the Serpanok sort – 0.99% and the Snisjana sort – 1.05%, of absolutely dry weight. This study has found that the yield of essential oil from the square meter in the second year of the culture cultivation ranged from 4.5 to 11.5 g/m2, and it was largely dependent on grade productivity. Also, the morphological structure of leaf epidermis was studied. Glands were found in large quantities, which are localized in the leaves. They are situated on the abaxial side and the adaxial side of the leaf. Essential oil glands start their formation in the germination phase and in the phase of the aerial shoots formation. The largest number of them was observed in budding stage, and they were located between the stomata gland evenly on the leaf surface. Number and morphology of the glands was not dependent on varietal characteristics. The yield of essential oil from plants per unit area in the second year of the culture cultivation was determined by performance grade, by oil concentration in specific organs, and by the structure of plant material. Most essential oil productivity has been identified in the Slava sort. It can be concluded, that in the conditions of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine, you can get a raw Monarda didyma mass, with which you can further isolate a valuable essential oil.
Key words Crimson bee balm, essential oil, raw material, sort, structure
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