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INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGIES OF SOIL TILLAGE ON WEEDS QUANTITY OF LEADING GRAIN CROPS IN THE NORTHERN STEPPE OF UKRAINE

Author(s) Svyrydov А. М. , PhD of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor, , Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V. V. Dokuchayev
Kolos М. О. , , , Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchayev
Svyrydova L. А. , , , Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchayev
Category General agriculture
year 2017 issue №2,2017
pages 115-119 index UDK 631.51:[632.51:633.1](477)
DOI
Abstract Stationary field studies on black soils of PJSC "Nasinnjeve" in Kehychiv district of Kharkiv region have been conducted with the aim of studying the efficiency of minimization of soil tillage for leading grain crops. It has been determined that, during four years of research, the plowing at the control has been the most effective for controlling quantity of weeds in sowings of crops in grain crop rotations. Almost at the same level with the increase in number and weight of weeds comparing with the control the minimum tillages with the use of a combined disk harrow influenced. In these variants, the total number of weeds increased by 34% and 44% correspondingly, and the mass of dry weeds increased by 35 and 43%. The quantity of perennial species increased after combined tillage – by 76% comparing with plowing. The highest level of weeds quantity in sowings of crops in the experiment was detected after prolonged use of zero tillage, despite more careful chemical control in this variant. In general, the increase of weeds quantity in crops sowings in crop rotation after zero tillage of soil during four years occurred by 71%, weed mass – 89%, and the quantity of perennial species – 2.1 times comparing with plowing. The species composition of weeds also has been changed after the replacement of plowing by minimum tillage and direct sowing. According to the research data in the structure of undesirable vegetation in all variants young species dominated. After plowing and zero tillage, the number of dicotyledonous weeds was larger, although the domination of certain species after zero tillage has changed in favor of winter representatives, in contrast to the late spring ones in the control variants.. The use of combined implements has led to a more active development of young cereal weeds. The application of zero soil tillage in grain crop rotation, even with the increased control by herbicides, has led to the most probable loss of crop yield from increased quantity of weeds in sowings of crops comparing with other technologies. In this variant, the ratio of weeds mass to the ground mass of crops has increased comparing with plowing by 2.6 times up to a very high level, which was as a result of insufficient development of grain crops as well as indirect reason of reducing the productivity of crop rotation. In general, the research results confirm the warnings of most researchers about strengthening the problem of controlling the quantity of weeds in sowings of crops after replacing intensive soil tillage or its abolishing
Key words methods of soil tillage, weeds, quantity of weeds in sowings, grain crops, peas, winter wheat, corn, sorghum.
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