Uman NUH | today: 06/26/2020

CROP YIELD AND QUALITY OF PEARS GROWN ON OPTIMIZING THE SOIL NUTRITION AND WITH DIFFERENT FOLIAR FEEDING

Author(s) Kopytko P.G., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor of Department of General Agriculture, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Petrenko S. O. , PhD of Agricultural Sciences, , Odessa State Agrarian University
Slyusarenko V. S. , , , Odessa State Agrarian University
Category Fruit-growing
year 2018 issue №1, 2018
pages 72-77 index UDK 634.13:631.559:631.8
DOI 10.31395/2310-0478-2018-1-72-77 (Link)
Abstract This work presents the results of the research conducted within 2015 field experiment, which was done according to a two-factor scheme replicated three times. The experiment involved eight сontrol trees on each elementary plot. Before the experiment was carried out, by agrochemical soil analyzing of the potassium mobile forms content, it had been found to be by 46 mg / kg fewer than the average value of the optimal level, and nitrate nitrogen (by the soil nitrification ability) and mobile phosphorus compounds - more than the optimal levels ofthose. To optimize the soil background, a K2O rate of 598 kg / ha was calculated and applied, and, thus, an optimized background for the pear soil mineral nutrition with all three major macronutrients (NPK) was created. The scheme of the study includes two levels of compounds and forms of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) available insoil: non-optimized (with no soil fertilizing) and optimized - bymeans of agrochemical soil fertilizers with the macronutrients which lack in the soil root zone (0-60 cm) inreaching the optimal levels (factor A), and four variants of foliar feeding: 1 – with no additional fertilizing (spraying leaf cover with water), 2, 3 and 4 – spraying with fertilizerpreparations solutions respectively, as follows: Reakom plus (garden-vegetable garden) – 5 l/ha, Vuksal Microplant – 3 l/ha and Biohelat "Fruit-berry crop" – 3 l/ha (factor B). The stated doses of the preparations were dissolved at the ratio of 1000 l of solution per 1 hectare of the garden. Sufficient levels of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds(which much exceed the optimal levelsof those for apple trees) available in ordinary chernozem for plants, and insufficient potassium supply (less than the optimal level of its exchange forms per 46 mg / kg of soil) сaused a sufficient K2O 598 kg / ha feeding for the pear trees with thisnutrient and the general optimized background for their mineral nutrition with the main macronutrients (NPK), which was maintained during the three-year study period. With an optimized background of soil nutrition, the highest productivity of the Tavriiska pear variety was provided by the four-time foliar feeding of trees by means of fertilizer preparation Vuksal Microplant; the crop yield was 33.5% higher as compared with its level (17.6 t / ha) with an non-optimized background. The increase in crop yield was due to a more abundant trees flowering (by 30.2– 34.9%), greater fruit inception(by 3.0– 3.5%) and keeping of fruits in the trees before harvesting by 16.3– 20.7%, and also due toan increase in their average weight by 9.9 – 11.0%. Optimizing the soil mineral nutrition of the pear and foliar feeding has resulted inan increase in fruit marketability – the yield of the superior and the first fruit commercial grades is relatively higher by 5.7 – 6.5%.
Key words pear, Tavriiska, fertilizers, foliar feeding, optimal level, crop yield
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