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WEEDS IN AGROPHYTOCENOSIS AND GREENING OF THE MEASURES OF CONTROL FOR THEIR NUMBER

Author(s) Bomba M. Y. , Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Lviv Institute of Economy and Tourism
Bomba M. I. , PhD of Agricultural Sciences, , Lviv National Agrarian University
Category 201 "Agronomy"
year 2019 issue №1, 2019
pages 15-20 index UDK 631.522:581.526.65:50 2.175
DOI 10.31395/2310-0478-2019-1-15-20 (Link)
Abstract The article considers the issue of weed growth on field agrophytocenosis. Recently, there is a tendency to growth of the problem due to many reasons. Weeds in the Western region of Ukraine mainly include annual and biennial kinds, constituting almost 89-95% of their total number, while the share of perennial weeds constitutes 5-11%. Analysis of the recent scientific works of domestic scientists and information of agriculture specialists supplies the conclusion that growth of weeds in agroecosystems is mainly caused by deterioration of scientifically argued crop rotations, transfer to minimized systems of principal soil tillage and simplification of the technologies of growing of most agricultural crops. On the top of the above-mentioned arguments, one should consider other factors, influencing spreading of weeds, including climatic changes and weed resistance to herbicides. Particularly, change of abiotic factor in the direction of increase of effective temperature, causes intensive spreading of the weeds, which are particular for the south of the country: yellow foxtail grass (Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), as well as such quarantine weeds such as field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Junck), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), Sosnovsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) and others. The authors of the work define directions and propose instruments to solve the problem through greening of technological factors concerning reduction of the number of weeds in agrophytocenosis as a basis to obtain ecologically clean products, to protect soil and environment. An important position is taken by crop rotation, combined system of soil tillage, break crops, straw and agrotechnical measures of fight against weeds. A particular attention is paid to weed growth on cropping area, extension of weed kinds, which are principally caused by the interaction of a complex of abiotic, biotic and agrotechnical factors. However, the principal role of producers of crop products is to create agrophytocenosis, which supplies the most favorable conditions for growth and development of crops. It secures the most complete use of the biotic potential of agricultural crops.
Key words weeds, agrophytocenosis, factor of spreading, greening of the measures of number control
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