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FEATURES OF STRUCTURAL GLANDULAR APPARATUS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS MONARDA DIDYMA LEAF UNDER CULTIVATION IN SOUTHERN STEPPES UKRAINE

Author(s) Samoylenko T. G. , PhD of Biology Sciences, , Mykolaiv National University of Horticulture
Yanchenko I. A. , , , Mykolayiv National Agrarian University
Category Crop production
year 2017 issue №1, 2017
pages 77-72 index UDK 633.812:581.135.51
DOI
Abstract In the experiment all studied sorts formed typical kinds of Crimson bee balm leaves. The total area of deciduous plant unit depended from plants foliage and ranged from 315.1 sq.sm in a variety Snizhana, to 856.0 sq.sm in a variety Serpanok. In generative period epiderma forms on the leaves surface glandular apparatus, glands are located mainly on the surface of the bottom (abaxyal) side of the leaf. In active blossoming period glandular apparatus occupies from 3% to 7% of the total leaf surface. In the control variety Slava total glandular area per unit of abaxyal side surface of leaf is 2,4 times more compared to the Serpanok and 1,6 times more than the variety Snizhana. The concentration of the essential oil of leaves in the samples ranged from 1,91% to 2,10%, this indicates that the overall grade not significantly differ on this indicator. Control variety Slava characterized by more developed glandular apparatus in 1,1-1,2 times had greater concentration of essential oils in the plant compared to other varieties. Depending on the varietal characteristics in the second year of cultivation from 1 sq.m deciduous plant unit might get from 2,0 to 3,5 grams of essential oil. Grade Slava is significantly different from grades Snizhana and Serpanok, it has to 1,5-1,7 times the performance of essential oil, which allowed us to obtain a higher yield of essential oil from the leaves. The chromatographic analysis showed the presence of more than 30 chemical components in essential oils . The main components of essential oil of Crimson bee balm grown in conditions of southern steppe of Ukraine are thymol, para-cymen and carvacrol. The major phenolic component in all varieties grown in these conditions is thymol, its concentration exceeds carvacrol content 1,8 times.
Key words crimson bee balm, essential oil, glandular apparatus, variety, component composition
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