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Author(s) Melnyk A. V. , Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Tereshchenko M. M. , , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Sharapanyuk O. S. , , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category 203 "Horticulture and Viticulture"
year 2019 issue №2, 2019
pages 98-102 index UDK 634.11:631.542(477.4)
DOI 10.31395/2310-0478-2019-2-98-102 (Link)
Abstract The article covers the optimization of the illumination of crowns and the coloring of apple fruits cv. Jonagold (Wilmuta) in the orchard on dwarf rootstock M.9 T337 under hail-protective net for different systems of soil maintenance in the inter-rows and tree strips. The purpose of the study was to optimize the illumination of crowns and the cover color of apples in the intensive orchard under the anti-hail net with different soil maintenance systems in the inter-rows and tree strips. The soil retention between the rows were black soil and periodically moved grass, in the tree strips 1.0 m wide there were a herbicide strip, spring mulching with a two-layer agro-cloth (white side up) and a mirror film, that was covered one month before the harvest. A black anti-hail net with 0.3 x 0.3 cm cells and a density of 0.08 kg / m2 was covered at the height of 3.4 m above the tree crowns in early June. The luminous mode of the crowns was determined by a light meter, and the results were calculated as a percentage of the total illumination on the open area. Similarly, in August, the level of reflected light was determined (as a percentage of the full outdoor area). The degree of covering color of apples was sorted according to the EU standard, and the influences of the studied factors were evaluated by multivariate analysis of variance. It is established that the crown lighting of 16–18-year-old trees is slightly lower under the hail protective net with a slightly higher index for black soil in the inter-rows. In the tree strips, the illumination was usually the lowest in the lower 0.5-meter part of the crown with herbicides in the tree strips and significantly increases in the grass between rows with the reflective film in the tree strips. The highest illumination is obtained in a black soil system between the rows without an anti-hail net, especially at a height of 0.5-1.0 m, and somewhat lower for the grass between rows. The maximum level of surface color of apples is obtained with a reflective film or agro-fabric in the tree strips and black soil in the inter-rows, and the number of fruits with a full color of the skin was achieved on the reflective film in both systems maintenance of inter-rows (with or without an anti-hail net).
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