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Author(s) Ulich O. L., PhD of Agricultural Sciences, , Kirovograd State Station for Varieties Research
Category Crop production
year 2016 issue №1, 2016
pages 51-54 index UDK УДК 631:633:1.11
Abstract The article presents the results of research of morphobiological features, properties and valuable agronomic and economic attainments of a new highly productive variety of soft winter wheat Staleva. This variety was registered in the State register of plant varieties suitable for spreading in Ukraine since 2015. The research showed the decisive differences of this variety from other genotypes concerning morphobiological features. This variety is short-stemmed, plant height is 75-85 cm, stem is thick, tough, resistant to plant lodging and germination of seeds sprinkled on the stump. This allows using higher doses of fertilizers under intensive agricultural technologies. Plants are able to withstand 10-ton harvest without lodging and using retardants. An early ripening vegetation period is made up of 265-275 days. Staleva has a dual nature of development. It can be attributed to dual nature varieties, short vernalization period is about 20 days. A key achievement and its advantage is early earing, lengthening the period of formation and ripening of grain. Staleva is characterized by good winter hardiness with critical temperature of freezing of plants being 16 °C. According to this feature, the variety belongs to the above average winter hardiness group. It is suitable for growing in all agro-climatic zones of Ukraine. Plants also have a high resistance to air drought and soil drought giving the advantage under deficit of moisture in the soil. According to bush habit, plants are half line, the benefits of which are in vertical location of leaves at an acute angle to the stem. Upper leaves do not shade lower ones, thus more sunlight penetrates to lower leaves. This enables plants to absorb solar radiation effectively, promotes photosynthesis (especially the lower leaves), which provides energy processes of growth and development, increases the accumulation of biomass and increases productivity. This variety successfully combines high natural potential of productivity with extensive ecological plasticity and good adaptiveness. The reason for this is the use of a well-known gene pool (Myronivska 808, Bezosta 1, Shestopalivka, Odeska 83) for crossing. High harvesting capacity is achieved by better conservation of plants in the course of hibernation and springsummer period, long-term work of photosynthetic apparatus. All these factors have a favorable effect on grain formation. Staleva is a leader in terms of harvesting capacity in a steppe zone. In the course of three years of research it surpassed the standard variety Podolianka in 0,62, and Smuglianka in 0,57 tons per hectare,. In six soil-climatic subzones out of eight it ranked first places, having surpassed national standards from 0,87 to 2,98 tons per hectare. The harvesting capacity in forest-steppe zone was at the level of standards, but in subzones of Vinnytsia, the center of expertise, and in the Mankivka sorting yard, it formed rather high and even record-breaking harvests. In the course of three years harvesting capacity formed 9,28 in the first instance and 7,44 tons per hectare in the latter case. Natural potential of productivity is implemented in a great measure by creation of high agricultural background of mineral nutrition while distributing subsequent to better predecessors and sowing at the end of optimal term. Having such valuable agrobiological and economic properties, the variety has convincing perspectives for spread in many regions of the country.
Key words wheat, variety, harvesting capacity, plasticity
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