Veresenko O. M., Researcher, , NSC "Institute of Agriculture NAAS"
Levchenko T. M., PhD of Agricultural Sciences, , NSC "Institute of agriculture NAAS"
Baydyuk T. O., Researcher, , NSC "Institute of Agriculture NAAS"
|Abstract||The widespread introduction of new varieties of lupine will give an opportunity not only to provide complete highprotein animal feeds and increase the profitability of agricultural production, but also to maintain soil fertility. The aim of the research was to create varieties of lupine white and yellow, which meet the given parameters (non-alkaloid, early maturing, highly productive, with improved fodder qualities, etc.) and study the effectiveness of herbicide action. Research methods: field, laboratory and statistical. Breeding work on creation of new varieties of lupine is conducted on full scheme of selection process. Source material obtained by the method of hybridization. The basis of selection on the method to improve individual selection for complex economically valuable characteristics. The Department of Selection and Seed Growing of Leguminous Crops created more than 30 varieties of lupine. In the State register of plant varieties of Ukraine for 2017 there are 7 varieties of white lupine and 3 varieties of yellow lupine, That were breeding at Institute of agriculture. In the table 1 show the characteristics of the best varieties on the basic economic-valuable signs. All varieties of our selection of lupine belong to the group of early ripening. Duration of the vegetative period from the phase of full germination to maturity is 100-118 days in the cultivars of white lupine and 90-100 days in yellow lupine, so all these varieties can be used as predecessors for winter crops. The period from germination to beginning of flowering shorter for white lupine, it blooms for 7 - 10 days earlier than yellow. The duration of the period flowering - ripening is highly dependent on weather conditions: hot and dry weather leads to faster maturation, and cool and wet leads to lengthening of the growing season. As the most precocious among the varieties of white lupine should be noted the variety Serpneviy and among the varieties of yellow - Svitiaz. At the highest grain productivity the stand out varieties of white lupine Chabanskiy (up to 5,0 t/ ha) and yellow lupine Agate Polissya (up to 2,8 t/ha). Mass of 1000 seeds of yellow lupine is 100 - 110 g, and white lupine is 290 - 330 g. Yield of green mass in both species of lupine high: yellow lupine - 60,0 - 70,0 t/ha, white lupine - 50,0 - 60,0 t/ha. The defeat of Fusarium varieties of white lupine did not exceed 2,5 % and the maximum percentage of infected plants of yellow lupine was 4,2. Thus all varieties can be attributed to the group of stable and highly stable. Evaluation of varieties of lupine, white and yellow on infection showed high infection by the Anthracnose, the prevalence of which ranged from 20,4 % to 35,5 %. Amount of protein in grain varieties of white lupine is 37 - 40 % and yellow lupine is 39 to 41 %. The high fat content, which improves the feeding value of grain, it can be noted the varieties of white lupine Veresneviy and Makarivskiy (9 - 10 %). The fat content in all varieties of yellow lupine in the grain was 7 to 8 %. New varieties of white and yellow lupine are characterized by a low content of alkaloids in grain – 0,03-0,09 %, in the green mass to 0,03 %. In order to determine the effectiveness of the action for the destruction of weeds in white lupine crops, Chabansky and Searpnevy studied the following preparations: Treflane (active substance trifluralin); Frontier Optima (dimetenamide); Jupiter (imazeatap); Harnes (acetochlor); Prometrex (promethrin); Stomp 330 (pendimethalin) and tank mixes Treflan + Jupiter; Treflan + Jupiter; Harnes + Jupiter; Prometrex + Jupiter. Counting the amount of weeds to determine the effectiveness of herbicides was carried out 30 days after their introduction (fig. 2). The best results on the effectiveness of reducing the total inhibition on the crops of both varieties of lupine were obtained with the addition of a tank mix Harnes + Jupiter, over three years, the destruction of weeds reached 80%. Good results showed the introduction of the tank mixture Prometrex + Jupiter (the average death rate of weeds in the years of research was 75% on the Serpneviy variety and 80% on the Chabanskiy variety) and Harnes herbicide in its pure form (on average in both varieties, the death rate was equal 79.0%). As a result of the conducted studies, the negative influence of these herbicides on plant development and reduction of yield of lupine seeds has not been established.|
|Key words||varieties of white and yellow lupine, breeding, yield, earliness, Fusarium, Anthracnose, protein, herbicide|