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Author(s) Yatsenko V. V., , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category Olericulture
year 2018 issue №2, 2018
pages 58-64 index UDK 635.1/8:262:635-1/-2(477.46)
DOI 10.31395/2310-0478-2018-21-58-63 (Link)
Abstract The article presents the results of research on the peculiarities of the adaptation of winter garlic varieties from different ecological and geographical regions in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, namely winter resistance, adaptability, stability and productivity. In the context of global climate changes and the deterioration of soil and climatic conditions, the rising cost of energy sources, the absence of stable and high-yielding varieties of winter garlic on domestic production, the issue of selection of local forms (varieties) from different regions of Ukraine becomes relevant, which characterized by high adaptability and stable yields and allocation among them the best for further breeding work. It has been established that introduced varieties and forms react differently to changing environmental conditions, which, in turn, depends on the conditions where the genotype and agrofone were formed and on which it was grown. Thus, during transportation from one region of cultivation (especially eastern and southern) in the conditions of the Right Bank Forest- Steppe of Ukraine (Cherkasy region), there is a sharp jump in productivity in the 1st year of cultivation and its significant decline in the 2nd year, but high adaptability and low stability remains. High adaptive ability is based only on the ratio of the number of planted plants to the number of plants that have formed a commercial bulb, but this indicator does not take into account the qualitative indices of the bulb, that is its mass. According to the researches it is clear that the most adaptable among the introduced species from other regions of the varieties and forms of winter garlic is the variety of Liubash (Zaporizhzhia region), varietal specimen No. 4 (Vinnytsia region) and No. 6 (Kharkiv region), where the coefficient of adaptability (КА) is within the range of 0.90-0.97, however, by the coefficient of phenotypic stability (SF) the most stable and close to the standard of which SF is 1.21 is the variety of Liubash, where SF is 1.24 and the yield varies from 12.9 t/ha in 2017 to 19.5 t/ha in 2018. The yield of varietal specimen No. 4 was 12.8-22.2 t/ha according to 2017-2018 years (SF 1.36). The yield of varietal specimen No. 6 was the highest in terms of years and ranged from 12.8 t/ha in 2018 to 41.3 in 2017, and this varietal specimen is characterized by the lowest phenotypic stability (SF 2.59). At the satisfactory level, the coefficient of adaptability was in variety samples No. 1; 9 and No. 10 (КА – 0.84-0.86). However, these samples are characterized by high SF, which is higher than the variety-standard of Sophiivskyi and it is 1.10-1.13. The highest productivity can be achieved by the transfer of varieties and forms from the east and south of Ukraine, which will yield a yield greater than the variety of Sophiivskyi at 3.1-12.3 t/ha without removing the flowered stem and 4.4-14.5 t/ha by using technology with the removal of the flower arrow of winter garlic.
Key words winter garlic, genotype, variety, varietal, form, winter resistance, adaptability, stability, bulb, yield
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