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Author(s) Gerasko T.V., PhD of Agricultural Sciences, , Taurian State Agrotechnological University
Zloedova A.V., , , Taurian State Agrotechnological University
Category Fruit-growing
year 2018 issue №2, 2018
pages 88-92 index UDK 634.23 (477.64)
DOI 10.31395/2310-0478-2018-21-88-92 (Link)
Abstract The experiment was conducted in an organic orchard of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars “Valery Chkalov” and “Dilemma”/Prunus mahaleb planted in 2011 at 7 × 5 m. The work was conducted from 2017 to 2018 in the southern steppe of Ukraine (Melitopol district, Zaporozhye region). The soil cover of the investigated area is the chestnut soils, which are very low-humus. Soils have a weakly alkaline reaction of soil solution (pH varies within 7.1-7.4). On the background of a light granulometric composition, the humus content in the upper humus horizon is 0.6%. The analysis of aqueous extraction revealed that the total content of water-soluble salts does not exceed 0.015 - 0.024%. Analyzing all physical and agrochemical properties, we can conclude that the soils are suitable for growing sweet cherries. The long-term mean air temperature is +9.6°C. The summer months (June, July, August) have an average daily air temperature of 20-22°C. Winters are warm with frequent thaws. The coldest months are January and February. During these months mean annual air temperature ranges minus 3.7-4.3°C, but the minimum temperature is reduced to minus 33°C. Mean annual precipitation for the last 10 years was approximately 350-450 mm. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block with two treatments, in triplicate. Each experimental plot had an area of 210 m2 (7 m × 30 m). Each plot contained 10 sweet cherry trees. Standard mechanical cultivation (MC) was compared with live mulch - spontaneous vegetation cover (LM). The natural vegetation of grasses were mowed 4 times during the growing season and the clippings were left on the ground for decomposition. Manual weeding was undertaken as required during the growing season. Any other management was identical in each treatment. Our studies showed that LM contributed to an increase in the chlorophyll index of cherry leafs of the cultivar “Dilemma” in 2017 and both studied cultivars in the conditions of severe drought in 2018. For cultivar “Valery Chkalov” there was no significant difference between the MC and LM in the total moisture content, relative turgrescence and humidity deficit. The cultivar “Dilemma” was characterized by a significantly lower total moisture content in the leaves in 2017-2018, but in LM the water-retaining ability of the leaves in 2018 was greater compared to MC. The leaf area was significantly less in LM in both studied species in 2017. In 2018 significant difference in leaf area wasn’t noted.
Key words sweet cherry, organic gardening, photosynthetic pigments, moisture deficit, leaf area
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