Uman NUH | today: 02/13/2023


Author(s) Chetskyi B. O., , ,
Zamorsky V. V., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category 203 "Horticulture and Viticulture"
year issue №1, 2022
pages 102-105 index UDK 634.11:634.1-15:634.1.055:634.1.076
DOI 10.31395/2310-0478-2022-1-102-105 (Link)
Abstract The research was conducted in 2017-2020 in apple orchards, which were located in the garden of FG "Neophytes" - a branch of the Department of Horticulture and Viticulture Uman National University of Horticulture. The objects were apple varieties: Golden Delicious (control), Fuji, Red Chief, Florina and Jonagold, grafted on rootstock M.9 and planted in 2014 according to the scheme 3.5 x 1 m. The high photosynthetic potential of the studied phytocenosis has been established. The highest parameters of leaf area were in the varieties Red Chief (18399 m2 / ha) and Jonagold (19485 m2 / ha), other pomological varieties accumulated from 14971 m2 / ha (Fuji) to 17199 m2 / ha (Florina) of leaf cover. At the age of three, the largest phytomass - 4,394 kg / tree was produced by Jonagold plants, and the smallest - 2,088 kg / tree - Red Chief. As the age of plantations increased, the phytomass of Jonagold trees increased to 20.4 kg / tree and Golden Delicious plants to 14.9 kg / tree. The actual yield of apple phytocenosis was the highest in the four-year period and the leader was the Jonagold variety, which 3.1 kg of fruit from the tree exceeded the Golden Delicious variety and 5.3 - Florina. The Red Chief and Fuji varieties produced 5.1 and 5.8 kg / tree of fruit during this period. The analysis of the obtained indicators indicates a rather high - from 68.1 to 80.5% share of fruits at the age of three. The pomological variety Red Chief prevailed, and the strongest results were grown by the vigorous Jonagold variety. As the age of plantations increased to six years, the share of fruits in the total phytomass of trees decreased to 32.4 (Jonagold) - 44.1% (Florina). The final analysis of the productive potential of new apple varieties gives reason to believe that the intensive phytocenosis of apple trees, depending on age can realize from 29.8% to 80.5% of the accumulated phytomass on the economically valuable part - the fruit. Preference should be given to new varieties of Red Chief, Fuji and Florina.
Key words apple, varieties, photosynthetic potential
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