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Author(s) Pavlichenko А. А., , , Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University
Category General agriculture
year 2018 issue №1, 2018
pages 29-32 index UDK 631.51/.582:631.8:633/635
DOI 10.31395/2310-0478-2018-1-29-32 (Link)
Abstract The article is devoted to the establishment of an optimal soil cultivation system to control the number of weed plants and to determine the potential for perturbation of arable land. The research has established that for all soil cultivations, there is a decrease in the potential and actual perturbation of arable land during two rotation of crop rotation, which indicates a high culture of agriculture in the experiment. The highest amount of raw mass of weeds was recorded for constant cultivation of soil with a planar. In differentiated and long-term small-scale cultivation, this indicator was higher, compared with control, in the first year of the experiment, and in the latter - the inverse regularity was observed. The raw mass of one segetal plant is the highest in the systematic fieldless cultivation, and for differentiated and long-term small-scale cultivation, it was at the control level. The determining factor, from which, first of all, is the inflorescence of crops during the period of their vegetation depends on the illumination of the soil surface on the field. The latter is determined by the peculiarities of the morphology of the plants, their development and the way of sowing. The most effective system of mechanical cultivation potential in controlling weed-infested shallow tillage was long, the least efficient - without shelves. For long-term field cultivation, weed seeds are distributed relatively evenly across all parts of the arable layer of soil, and for permanent non-polar - localized in a superficial (0-10 cm) layer. The highest efficiency in regulating the abundance of the weed component in agrophytocenoses was noted for differentiated and long-term small-scale cultivation of chernozem, the lowest - for systematic cultivation with a planar cutting. For systematic, flat-cut cultivation, the proportion of monocotyledonous weeds increases. With an increase in the level of fertilizers, the potential and actual infestation of crop rotation decreases. Research on this problem should be continued in order to study the influence of the studied variants of cultivation on the change of the thermal, nutrient and water modes of typical black soil.
Key words crop rotation, weeds, methods of cultivating soil, fertilizer doses
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