Uman NUH | today: 06/29/2020

Nutrient regime of the soil and yielding capacity of young trees of pears at the optimization of mineral nutrition

Author(s) Kopytko P.G., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor of Department of General Agriculture, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Petryshyna I.P., post-graduate student, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category Agricultural chemistry
year 2014 issue №1
pages 17-21 index UDK 631.445.2:634.13:631.8
Abstract We consider information from the literature about the possibility of optimization of mineral nutrition of fruit trees, mainly in the case of apple, pear because of such special studies not held, particularly in terms of Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. It is noted that the biological and ecological features pears differ markedly from the tree. Therefore, set for apple optimal levels available for plant nutrition forms of batteries that are recommended for pears must specify in the research directly into pear plantations. Described in the paper the results of this study we have obtained in the experiment with two varieties of pears Konferentsia and Osnovianska grown since 2007 dark-grey podzolized soil under conditions of unstable moistening Right Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. On the ground in areas without fertilizers annual analysis detected an insufficient level of nitrogen nutrition and therefore was introduced rules designed nitrogen fertilizers – to maintain its optimal parameters. In 2012, tests showed insufficient content and mobile forms of potassium, since the rules were made potash fertilizer required for an optimal background supply of fruit trees, and in 2013 became a sufficient level of all three elements (N, P2O5 and K2O). In 2012, the largest amount of nitrate nitrogen (26,6 mg/kg soil) was in soil layer 0–40 cm in areas of industrial control, where every year brought higher standards of fertilizers – N90P60K90. It was much the upper limit of the optimal level of N–NO3 and significantly higher than the values of all other research options. P2O5 content in the soil layer 0–60 cm higher than the optimum level in all versions, but the level was slightly lower K2O optimum. In 2013, ground was sufficiently provided with nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus and potassium moving in all variants of fertilization without significant differences between their values. Software without fertilizers soil in the control variant was significantly lower. Fruiting young pear trees in 2012 was still a minor – yield varieties Konferentsia was 6,1–8,8 t/ha and grade Osnovianska – only 1,8–3,1 t/ha. In all versions of fertilizing its performance significantly exceeded the control (without fertilization). Among the studied variants of fertilization significantly higher yields differed those which were made in addition to background nitrogen and potash (background + N30 and background + N30K30). In 2013, yield grade Konferentsia was 9,0–12,8 t/ha and grade Osnovianska – 12,7–17,3 t/ha. In embodiments of fertilization is significantly higher than the values of absolute control (without fertilization), respectively, for 3,0–3,8 and3,5–4,6 t/ha, and between research options with different fertilization had no significant difference. It is concluded that mineral nutrition of pear varieties Konferentsia and Osnovianska grown in dark-gray podzolized soil, optimizes when making calculated by agro-chemical analysis of the performance of only those fertilizers that replenish soil related elements, mobile connections are lacking in it to optimal levels. In this research yield optimization pear tree is much higher than its level in without fertilizers sites and did not differ significantly from that of industrial control, where fertilizers are made annually in much more than the norm.
Key words pears, optimization of mineral nutrition, fertilization, yielding capacity
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